The city and the theme
The city and the theme In recent decades the Latin American continent experienced the most impressive urban modification of its history. In Brazil, of 200 million inhabitants, 175 million live in cities. The country built a universe of multiple and diverse cities, full of contrasts, of possibility, of inequalities, of hits. There are 20 cities such as Brasilia, Porto Alegre, Salvador, Belo Horizonte, Fortaleza. Two megacities interlinked in territory forming a world of 33 million urban people – Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.
Rio presents a rich and complex urban framework. There, social differences and contrasts are morphologically explicit and representing the reality of the Brazilian urban totality. The multiplicity of Rio’s spaces, the variety of their urbanite forms, and the numerous conditions of the constructive insertion in peculiar and fanciful geography produced urban stretches which, in a certain way, synthesizing many paths of 21 century Architecture.
The asymmetrical economic development produced urban environments with strong clearness.
The phenomenon of the slums, though occurs in many other cities of developing countries, has in Rio unusual presence. They have been treated more recently with innovative public policies. Highlight to the Favela-Bairro Program, conducted by the city government of Rio de Janeiro, targeting the full urbanization of these settlements, and it has been on for two decades of impressive results. This experience has had ripple effects in other Brazilian cities and abroad.
The phenomenon of the segmented city is another product of asymmetric economic development, but also of the road model of mobility which became hegemonic fifty years ago, as well as architectural doctrines under strong contestation. High-income architectural enclaves have been growing presence in the city – especially in their areas of expansion and also require a wide reflection.
Yet the phenomenon of densification, in residential buildings of great height, has been an otherwise characteristic part of the carioca and Brazilian urban landscape, in general.
But the expansion of the periphery, in low density, with townhouses blends, with lack of infrastructure, is perhaps the dominant mode of the popular housing of Brazilian cities.
The enjoyment of the public space is the most expressive Rio’s attribute. This enjoyment is opposed to fragmentation and isolation. In addition to the conventional system of public spaces, from the early 20th century the city gradually incorporated the urban living spaces of the sea beaches. Boasting more than 40 miles of urban beaches, free, open and available to the entire population, Rio de Janeiro built a way of life where social interaction has high expression.
These modes of occupation and use of urban territory show the spatial diversity of Rio de Janeiro. Distinct and specific world which constitutes a multiple city, full of contrasts, of possibilities, of inequalities and of hits, also is related to many others big Brazilian and Latin American cities.
But the notion of finitude of the planet imposes us new challenges in pursuit of preservation and sustainability – both of the environment and the urban culture itself. In affirmative way is the understanding that our work of architect should be one of the protagonists of the construction of a world that is more attentive to contemporary, social and environmental problems.
Precisely strengthens the idea of a just world interrelated by communication technologies, economics and culture but, above all, by the commitment to overcome the big issues of our time.
Architecture enriches its experience without dogmas.
Advanced technologies, used in most modern cultural and sporting equipment related to the preparation of the city to host the 2016 Olympic Games, as well as a new and comprehensive public transport network, which connects the entire city, alongside a unique colonial and contemporary architectural heritage; as well urban interventions in the slums and the commitment with the treatment of ambient issues, make Rio which also hosted the ECO 92 Conference and Rio+20, in 2012, a city open to the challenges of 21 century.
The experience of the essential link between the exuberant nature and architecture, over time, shape in Rio a crucible of situations of great interest for the study of space and construction.
“All the worlds. Just one world. Architecture 21” has Rio de Janeiro as synthesis city.
In addition to the reasons that qualify as host city, the achievement of the 2020 Architects World Congress in Rio will make Latin America strengthen its ties with the larger entity representation of architects – UIA. 2020 will be the opportunity to host the World Congress of the UIA in Latin America after 42 years, since Mexico City in 1978. It is recalled that, after that date, five Congresses have already been held in Europe (last in Turim, 2008), two Congresses in North America (last in Chicago, 1993), four in Asia (last in Tokyo and Seoul, 2017) and one in Africa (Durban, 2014).
In 2020 the Institute of Architects of Brazil - IAB will celebrate its hundredth anniversary, remembering its Foundation.
The IAB, a founding member of the UIA is the parent entity of the other four Brazilian national entities of architects and urbanists: National Federation of Architects - FNA (trade unionist), Brazilian Association of Architectural Firms - AsBEA, Brazilian Association of Landscape Architects - ABAP and Brazilian Association of Schools of Architecture - ABEA.
After fifty years fighting for the IAB professional valuation, and, as the other entities were created, also with its support, finally in 2010 the law creates the Board of Architecture and Urbanism of Brazilian Council CAU BR, the federal autarchy promulgated to regulate and oversee the profession. We can say that now, the profession has institutions that span its entire spectrum of cultural, regulatory and labor needs.
Furthermore, the Board of architecture professionals operating in Brazil is, currently, more than 100 thousand registered architects. The number of schools of architecture surpasses 300 courses, with about 40,000 students. Facing country’s major structural changes this professional universe, being formed, lives a moment of great expectation. The IAB and the other professional institutions understand that it is a major work and unity in order to qualify this professional frame, in order to strengthen the integration of the work of architects as an instrument for the development of the country and improvement of cities. So, in preparation for the centenary of the IAB, the coming years should be dedicated to a broad mobilization of architects and students with such purpose.
It is in this context that the achievement of the World Congress of Architects -UIA 2020 - can represent a catalyst element of efforts and reflection. Remember that in 2014 and 2017 the 20th and 21st Brazilian Congress of Architects will take place. Therefore, all national entities listed above support firmly the candidacy of Rio de Janeiro as the host of the UIA Congress 2020.
In line with this effort, the IAB received the support of the most significant leaders of category, epitomized in the ex-presidents of the entity. The IAB also received the enthusiasm of the Brazilian architects who were or are Members of the UIA, in representation of the architects of the American continent.
This set of fellow architects, leaders of the category, along with the Presidents of the other national entities, will compose the Monitoring Council of the UIA Congress 2020 RIO.
The Institute of Architects of Brazil and the other entities that help to structure the profession of architect in the country will offer all the support to the cultural exchange programs for associates of UIA Member sections.
The UIA Congress 2020 RIO has the necessary support from municipal, state and federal governments. The great development of industrial and service companies related to architecture and construction in the country will have interest in welcoming visitors and architects participating in parallel events to the Congress. Rio de Janeiro has received distinguished awards as a welcoming city.